Corporate Colonization: The Untold Truth

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1700 – 1783

1701 1701 Nanfan Treaty - 5 Nations

Nanfan Treaty between the Five Nations and the English Crown by John Nanfan in respect of  Onkwehon:we Beaver Hunting Ground.  The agreement was made between the Onkwehon:we representatives of the League of Great Peace (5 Nations) and John Nanfan, the acting colonial governor of New York, on behalf of the The Crown, in Albany, New York, on July 19, 1701. The Mohawks refused to endorse the treaty.

…and after that wee had been sixty years sole masters and owners of the said land enjoying peaceable hunting without any internegotion, a remnant of one of the seaven nations called Tionondade whom wee had expelled and drove away came and settled there twenty years agoe disturbed our beaver hunting against which nation wee have warred ever since and would have subdued them long ere now had not they been assisted and succoured by the French of Canada, and whereas the Governour of Canada aforesaid hath lately sent a considerable force to a place called Tjeughsaghronde the principall passe that commands said land to build a Forte there without our leave and consent, by which means they will possess themselves of that excellent country where there is not only a very good soile but great plenty of all maner of wild beasts in such quantities that there is no maner of trouble in killing of them and also will be sole masters of the Boar hunting whereby wee shall be deprived of our livelyhood and subsistance and brought to perpetual bondage and slavery…

… alwayes provided and it is hereby expected that wee are to have free hunting for us and the heires and descendants from us the Five nations for ever and that free of all disturbances expecting to be protected therein by the Crown of England but from all the action right title interest and demand of in or to the premises or every of them shall and will be uterly excluded and debarred for ever by these presents and wee the said Sachims of the Five Nations of Indians called Maquase, Oneydes, Onnandages, Cayouges and Sinnekes and our heires the said tract of land or Colony, lakes and rivers and premises and every part and parcell thereof with their every of their appurtenances unto our souveraigne Lord the King William the third & his heires and successors Kings of England to his and their proper use and uses against us our heires and all and every other person lawfully claiming by from or under us the said Five nations shall and will warrant and for ever defend by these presents.

The signatories placed their lands in the protective hands of the English crown [which became ‘British’ after 1707]. The Five Nations held title to the vast area of land, covering significant portions of the present-day Midwestern United States and southern Ontario as a hunting ground, as far west as ‘Quadoge’ (now Chicago), by right of conquest during the later Beaver Wars of the 17th century.

Lord Cornbury orders the rebuilding of Fort Frederick with stone.

1702-1713  Start of Queen Anne’s War in America (called the war of Spanish Succession in Europe). The Tuscarora join the League of Great Peace.

By 1703, more than 43 percent of New York households held slaves, often as domestic servants and laborers.

Onkwehon:we Diplomats visit England when Pieter Schuyler brings Mohawk Sachems to hold Council with Queen Anne in London.

Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row, or John of Canajoharie, a Mohawk sachem with bow in hand. Behind him is a wolf, representing his clan. Painting by John Verelst, 1710.

Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row, or John of Canajoharie, a Mohawk sachem with bow in hand. Behind him is a wolf, representing his clan. Painting by John Verelst, 1710. Canajoharie  would become the subject of Haldimand’s pledge to the Mohawks on April 7, 1779.

Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow, or Brant, a Mohawk war chief with musket in hand. His belt is decorated with black, red, and white dyed moosehair or porcupine quills. His moccasins are decorated with red and tan quills and tied with red ribbons. He has downy white feathers by each ear, red ribbons hanging from his right ear, and has a powderhorn on a red cord. Behind him is a bear representing his clan. Painting by John Verelst, 1710.

Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow, or Brant, a Mohawk war chief with musket in hand. His belt is decorated with black, red, and white dyed moosehair or porcupine quills. His moccasins are decorated with red and tan quills and tied with red ribbons. He has downy white feathers by each ear, red ribbons hanging from his right ear, and has a powderhorn on a red cord. Behind him is a bear representing his clan. Painting by John Verelst, 1710.

The Mahican sachem Etow Oh Koam, or Nicholas, who went to London with 3 Mohawks in 1710. He holds a ball-headed club and the turtle at his feet indicates his clan. Painting by John Verelst, 1710

The Mahican sachem Etow Oh Koam, or Nicholas, who went to London with 3 Mohawks in 1710. He holds a ball-headed club and the turtle at his feet indicates his clan. Painting by John Verelst, 1710

Ho Nee Yeath Taw No Row, or John of Canajoharie,  represented the Ka-nyen-ge-ha-ka (Mohawk) Wolf Clan of Canajoharie would become the subject of Haldimand’s pledge to the Mohawks on April 7, 1779.

Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow, also known as Brant, was the grandfather of Joseph Brant, the prominent Mohawk war chief who later founded the Mohawk Village and the Grand River Territory at Brant’s Ford in present-day Ontario represented the bear clan. The Grand River territory constitutes one of the largest continuous Onkwehon:we settlements in North America.

The “Four Indian Kings,” as they were known in England, were celebrated and honored everywhere they went, and as foreign dignitaries of state the Onkwehon:we Sachems were given a Grand Tour of London, including a performance of Shakespeare’s MacBeth and a visit to the Royal Opera. They also attended a “trial of skill with sword” between two fighting Englishmen and visited the Cockpit Royal, where they witnessed the “Royal Sport” of cockfighting firsthand.

A large collection of historical accounts including paintings survive that recount the visit including numerous versions of their speech to Queen Anne, other published accounts of their visitation, some 30 portraits of the Kings in the form of engravings and miniatures, and four portrait oil paintings. 

Through the early eighteenth century, England sought to cultivate alliances with Onkwehon:we and in particular the Mohawks and the League of Great Peace known at the time as the 5 Nations Confederacy, in order to counter the French presence in North America. In the spring of 1710, Peter Schuyler, the British agent appointed for this purpose, traveled with four Mohawk diplomats to England so that Queen Anne herself and others from the British government could persuade them to continue siding with the English colonists.

Of the Five Nations of the League, the Mohawks not only were the best known to the English, but as keepers of the founders of the League and keepers of the Easter Door, the Queen was keenly aware of the fact that ultimately Mohawk permission was required first in respect of matters of state within the Eastern frontier.  Further, the English knew that the Mohawks held the power to bring further agreements forward – West, North and South, in order to obtain broader alliances.

Though the English considered these four emissiaries to be ‘kings’, they in fact not only held titles, but also wielded significant power at home, led by persuasion, rather than edict – and all at the pleasure of their people. Although other Native Americans had traveled to England and elsewhere in Europe over the previous century, these four “kings” were the first to have been specifically invited by the British monarchy. In return for a pledge to continue the alliance with Britain, the Mohawk representatives obtained from the British government additional weapons and textiles, and also obtained from British missionaries eager promises to counter the influence of French Jesuits among the Onkwehon:we peoples.

1713
The Treaties of Utrecht (1713)

The Treaties of Utrecht (1713)

The Treaties of Utrecht 

Marked the start of three decades of peace on the New York frontier. The treaties registered the defeat of French ambitions expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and preserved the European system based on the balance of power – both in Europe and North America.

The European concept of the balance of power, became a common topic of debate during the war and the conferences that led to signing of the treaties.

Signatories
1717-1808 Palatine Germans begin to arrive in New York, many eventually settle in Schoharie and Mohawk Valleys whilst encroachments persisted to attempt to usurp Five Nations territories. Albany County gains and loses territory during this time, finally reaching its present size with the creation of Schenectady County in 1808.
1744
The Treaty of Lancaster was a treaty concluded between the Six Nations (Iroquois) and the colonies of Virginia and Maryland. Negotiations began atLancaster, Pennsylvania, on June 25, and ended on July 4, 1744.[1] The negotiations were conducted in the old courthouse, which stood in the center of Lancaster at the time. The Soldiers and Sailors Monument, built in 1874 to commemorate the U.S. Civil War, now stands on the site of the Treaty in Penn Square.[2] Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood had arranged the Treaty of Albany with the Six Nations in 1722.[3] It renewed the Covenant Chain and agreed to recognize the Blue Ridge Mountains as the demarcation between the Virginia Colony and the Iroquois.Colonial governments were unable to prevent white settlers from moving beyond the Blue Ridge and into the Shenandoah Valley in the 1730s. When the Iroquois objected, they were told that the agreed demarcation was to prevent their trespassing east of the Blue Ridge, but not to prevent the English from expanding west of them. In 1743 the Iroquois skirmished with some Valley settlers. The Iroquois were on the verge of declaring total war on the Virginia Colony when Governor Gooch paid them the sum of 100 pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley which they claimed. The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster, the Iroquois sold all their remaining claim to the Shenandoah Valley for 200 pounds in gold.[4] At the same time, it was an attempt to make peace between the Iroquois and the southern Catawba.[5]Even so, a difference in interpretation remained. The Virginians believed that the Iroquois had relinquished to the Crown any claim they had on all the lands within the 1609 Chartered boundaries of Virginia. They considered these to extend to the Pacific, or at least up to the Ohio River. The Iroquois understood that they had ceded only their lands up to the Ohio watershed; in other words, only the Shenandoah Valley east of the Allegheny Mountains.[6]This difference was partly resolved at the 1752 Treaty of Logstown, where the Iroquois recognised English rights southeast of the Ohio. Nevertheless, the Cherokee, Shawnee and other nations continued to claim by possession large portions of the area beyond the Allegheny Ridge. At the 1758 Treaty of Easton with the Shawnee ending “Braddock’s War” (a portion of the French and Indian Wars), the colonies agreed to settle no further west of the Alleghenies (the Eastern Divide). The Royal Proclamation of 1763 confirmed this territory as Indian land.[7] 

In 1745 the garrison at the fort is increased and all male citizens are placed under arms on outbreak of war between England and France, the War of Austrian Succession, a.k.a. King George’s War in America.

1754 First Colonial Congress is held at Albany, where Benjamin Franklin introduces the Albany Plan of Union for all the colonies. The Albany Congress was a meeting of representatives from the northern seven of the thirteen British North American colonies (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York,Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island). Representatives met daily at Albany, New York from June 19 to July 11, 1754 to discuss better relations with the Onkwehon:we and common defensive measures against the French, given tensions that led to the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years War between Great Britain and France. Delegates did not have the goal of creating an American nation; rather, they were colonists with the more limited mission of pursuing a treaty with the Mohawk and the League of Great Peace. Peace is concluded with the Five Nations. (See: Brands, H.W. The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2002)
1754 The French and Indian War begins. It is a part of the Seven Years War, a world war also fought in Europe, Asia, Africa and at sea. It will end in 1763.
1755 Colonel William Johnson, commander of the Albany County militia, captures Baron Dieskau at Battle of Lake George. King Hendrick, the great Mohawk Cheif, is killed there.
1758 Dr. Richard Shuckburgh composes “Yankee Doodle” at Fort Crailo as British Army assembles under General Abercrombie for attack on Ticonderoga. Abercrombie’s army is defeated by the French with great losses.
1759 Lord Jeffrey Amherst completes conquest of Canada and moves troops from Albany to Montreal, alienating French-aligned Onkwehon:we. Amherst led an army against French troops on Lake Champlain, where he captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1759, while another army under Sir William Johnson took Niagara also in July 1759 and James Wolfe besieged and eventually captured Quebec with a third army in September 1759.
1761-1762 British troops build Schuyler Mansion.
1763 The hostility between the British and Onkwehon:we after the French and Indian War suggests there may have been an attempt at biological warfare.[16]Smallpox had broken out at Fort Pitt in 1763, and the Commander of Fort Pitt proposed giving blankets infected with smallpox to American Indians.[17]Amherst approved the plan in theory[2][7][17] and expressed his willingness to adopt any “other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race.” Amherst was summoned home, forced to defend his conduct, and faced complaints made by Sir William Johnson and George Croghan who successfully lobbied the Board of Trade leading to Amherst’s removal.[20]Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War. France loses Canada to Britain.The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain’s acquisition of French controlled territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War, in which it forbade settlers from settling past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain’s new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Onkwehon:we through promise of regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. The Royal Proclamation continues to have force and effect, and is of paramount legal importance to Onkwehon:we in Canada and is referred to specifically in Section 25 of the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982.
1765 The British Parliament passes the Stamp Act, to the colonists’ outcry of:  “No taxation without representation!”
1766 Sons of Liberty orchestrate opposition to the Stamp Act.
1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix “Six Nations” Onkwehon:we sell all their remaining claims between the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers. The Shawnee relinquished their claim on that area only following their defeat in Dunmore’s War in 1774. The Cherokee also ceded their claims in this region (encompassing most of present-day Kentucky and part of West Virginia) in the Treaty of Hard Labour (1768), the Treaty of Lochaber (1770), and the Henderson Purchase (1775).
1774 Mother Ann Lee establishes the Shaker community in Watervliet.
1775 The American Revolution begins after the American Six Nations (Confederates) decide on a policy of neutrality at Albany in 1775.  Major General Philip Schuyler commands the Northern Department of the Continental Army.
1776

The Declaration of Independence is read at City Hall. Mayor Abraham Cuyler, a royalist, is deposed. Many local Tories flee, departing north to Canada.

Thayendanegea - Joseph Brant

Thayendanegea – Joseph Brant

Joseph Brant is solicited by both American 6 Nations (Confederate) and British (Tory) sides to pledge his people’s loyalty and found himself perplexed amidst a contrariety of arguments upon this tragic subject, which he could not well understand. Before coming to a decisive resolution he resolved to go himself into the presence of the Great King, as the British Sovereign is styled amongst the Onkwehon:we. He accordingly travelled to London, accompanied by Captain Tice, an officer of English extraction, born in America and who has a settlement just in the neighborhood of the Mohawk Nation. By what mode of reasoning this chief was convinced of the justice of the demands of Great Britain upon her colonies, and the propriety of enforcing them, in exchange for a pledge to better times, it is said he promised to not only pledge his assistance to the government, but to bring three thousand men into the field. 

In company with Captain Tice Joseph Brant  sailed for America in the spring of 1776, and was landed cautiously and privately in the neighborhood of New York harbor, about the beginning of April. He participated with Howe’s forces as they prepared to retake New York. Although the details of his service that summer and fall were not officially recorded, Brant was said to have distinguished himself for bravery. He was thought to be with Clinton, Cornwallis, and Percy in the flanking movement at Jamaica Pass in the Battle of Long Island in August 1776.[9] He became lifelong friends with Lord Percy, later Duke of Northumberland.

In November, Brant left New York City and traveled northwest through Patriot-held territory. Disguised, traveling at night and sleeping during the day, he reached Onoquaga, where he rejoined his family. At the end of December, he was at Fort Niagara. He traveled from village to village in the confederacy, urging Onkwehon:we to enter the war as loyal British allies. Many balked at Brant’s plans. Joseph Louis Cook, a Mohawk leader who supported the rebel American colonists, and the American Six Nation’s Confederacy became a lifelong enemy of Brant’s.

The full council of the American Six Nations Confederacy had previously decided on a policy of neutrality at Albany in 1775.

Frustrated, Brant returned to Onoquaga in the spring to recruit independent warriors. Few Onoquaga villagers joined him, but in May he was successful in recruiting Loyalists who wished to retaliate against the rebels. This group became known as Brant’s Volunteers. In June, he led them to Unadilla to obtain supplies. There he was confronted by 380 men of the Tryon County militia led by Nicholas Herkimer. Herkimer requested that the Iroquois remain neutral but Brant responded that the Indians owed their loyalty to the King. They hoped to evict the European settlers from their territory.

In May, Brant returned to Fort Niagara where, with his new salary and plunder from his raids, he acquired a farm on the Niagara River, six miles (10 km) from the fort. To work the farm and to serve the household, he used slaves captured during his raids. Brant also bought a slave, a seven-year-old African-Americangirl named Sophia Burthen Pooley. She served him and his family for many years before he sold her to an Englishman for $100.[17] He built a small chapel for the Indians who started living nearby. There he also married for a third time.

Brant’s honors and gifts caused jealousy among rival chiefs, in particular the Seneca war chief Sayenqueraghta. A British general said that Brant “would be much happier and would have more weight with the Indians, which he in some measure forfeits by their knowing that he receives pay.” In late 1779, after receiving a colonel’s commission for Brant from Lord Germain, Haldimand decided to hold it without informing Brant.

In early July 1779, the British learned of plans for a major American expedition into Iroquois Seneca country. To disrupt the Americans’ plans, John Butler sent Brant and his Volunteers on a quest for provisions and to gather intelligence in the upper Delaware River valley near Minisink, New York. After stopping at Onaquaga, Brant attacked and defeated American militia at the Battle of Minisink on July 22, 1779. Brant’s raid failed to disrupt the Continental Army‘s plans, however.

In the Sullivan Expedition, the Continental Army sent a large force deep into Iroquois territory to attack the warriors and, as importantly, destroy their villages, crops and food stores. Brant and the Iroquois were defeated on August 29, 1779 at the Battle of Newtown, the only major conflict of the expedition. Sullivan’s Continentals swept away all Iroquois resistance in New York, burned their villages, and forced the Iroquois to fall back to Fort Niagara. Brant wintered at Fort Niagara in 1779-80.

Wounded and service in Detroit area, 1780-1783

Brant resumed small-scale attacks on the Mohawk Valley. In February 1780, he and his party set out and in April attacked Harpersfield. In mid-July, 1780 Brant attacked the Oneida village of Kanonwalohale, as the nation was an ally of the American colonists. Brant’s raiders destroyed the Oneida houses, horses, and crops. Some of the Oneida surrendered, but most took refuge at Fort Stanwix.

Traveling east, they attacked towns on both sides of the Mohawk River: Canajoharie and Fort Plank. He burned his former hometown of Canajoharie because it had been re-occupied by American settlers. On their return up the valley, they divided into smaller parties, attacking SchoharieCherry Valley, and German Flatts. Joining with Butler’s Rangers and the King’s Royal Regiment of New York, Brant’s forces were part of a third major raid on the Mohawk Valley, where they destroyed settlers’ homes and crops. Brant was wounded in the heel at the Battle of Klock’s Field.

In April 1781 Brant was sent west to Fort Detroit to help defend against Virginian George Rogers Clark‘s expedition into the Ohio Country. In August 1781, Brant soundly defeated a detachment of Clark’s force, ending the American threat to Detroit. He was wounded in the leg and spent the winter 1781-1782 at the fort. During 1781 and 1782, Brant tried to keep the disaffected western Iroquois nations loyal to the Crown before and after the British surrendered at Yorktownin October 1781.

In June 1782 Brant and his Indians went to Fort Oswego, where they helped rebuild the fort. In July 1782, he and 460 Iroquois raided forts Herkimer andDayton, but they did not cause much serious damage. Sometime during the raid, he received a letter from Governor Haldimand, announcing peace negotiations, recalling the war party and ordering a cessation of hostilities.[1] Brant denounced the British “no offensive war” policy as a betrayal of the Iroquois and urged the Indians to continue the war, but they were unable to do so without British supplies.

Other events in the New World and Europe as well as changes in the British government had brought reconsideration of British national interest on the American continent. The new governments recognized their priority to get Britain out of its four interconnected wars, and time might be short. Through a long and involved process between March and the end of November 1782, the preliminary peace treaty between Great Britain and America would be made; it would become public knowledge following its approval by the Congress of the Confederation on April 15, 1783. Nearly another year would pass before the other foreign parties to the conflict signed treaties on 3 September 1783, with that being ratified by Congress on January 14, 1784, and formally ending the American Revolutionary War.

1777 In July 1777 the American Six Nations Confederacy council decided to abandon neutrality and enter the war on the British side. Four of the six nations chose this route, and some members of the Oneida and Tuscarora, who otherwise allied with the rebels. Brant was not present. Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter were named as the war chiefs of the confederacy. The Mohawk had earlier made Brant one of their war chiefs; they also selected John Deseronto.In July, Brant led his Volunteers north to link up with Barry St. Leger at Fort Oswego. St. Leger’s plan was to travel downriver, east in the Mohawk River valley, to Albany, where he would meet the army of John Burgoyne, who was coming from Lake Champlain and the upper Hudson River. St. Leger’s expedition ground to a halt with the Siege of Fort Stanwix. Brant played a major role in the Battle of Oriskany, where a Patriot relief expedition was stopped. St. Leger was eventually forced to lift the siege, and Brant traveled to Burgoyne’s main army to inform him.[10] Burgoyne restricted participation by native warriors, so Brant departed for Fort Niagara, where his family joined him and he spent the winter planning the next year’s campaign. His wife Susanna likely died at Fort Niagara that winter. (Burgoyne’s campaign ended with his surrender to the Patriots after the Battles of Saratoga.) In April 1778, Brant returned to Onoquaga. He became one the most active partisan leaders in the frontier war. He and his Volunteers raided rebel settlements throughout the Mohawk Valley, stealing their cattle, burning their houses, and killing many. On May 30, he led an attack on Cobleskill and in September, along with Captain William Caldwell, he led a mixed force of Indians and Loyalists in a raid on German Flatts. In the Battle of Wyoming in July, the Seneca were accused of slaughtering noncombatant civilians. Although Brant was suspected of being involved, he did not participate in that battle.In October 1778, Continental soldiers and local militia attacked Brant’s home base at Onaquaga while his Volunteers were away on a raid. The soldiers burned the houses, killed the cattle, chopped down the apple trees, spoiled the growing corn crop, and killed some native children found in the corn fields. The American commander later described Onaquaga as “the finest Indian town I ever saw; on both sides [of] the river there was about 40 good houses, square logs, shingles & stone chimneys, good floors, glass windows.” In November 1778, Brant joined his Mohawk forces with those led by Walter Butler in the Cherry Valley massacre;[1]

Butler’s forces were composed primarily of Seneca angered by the rebel raids on Onaquaga, Unadilla, and Tioga, and by accusations of atrocities during theBattle of Wyoming. The force rampaged through Cherry Valley, a community in which Brant knew several people. He tried to restrain the attack, but more than 30 noncombatants were reported to be slain in the attack.

The Patriot Americans believed that Brant had commanded the Wyoming Valley massacre of 1778, and also considered him responsible for the Cherry Valley massacre. At the time, frontier rebels called him “the Monster Brant”, and stories of his massacres and atrocities were widely propagated. The violence of the frontier warfare added to the rebel Americans’ hatred of the Iroquois and soured relations for 50 years. While the colonists called the Indian killings “massacres”, they considered their own forces’ widespread destruction of Indian villages and populations simply as part of the partisan war, but the Iroquois equally grieved their losses.

1779

In February 1779, Brant traveled to Montreal to meet with Frederick Haldimand, the military commander and Governor of Quebec. Haldimand commissioned Brant as Captain of the Northern Confederated Indians. He also promised provisions, but no pay, for his Volunteers. Assuming victory, Haldimand pledged that after the war ended, the British government would restore the Mohawk to their lands as stated before the conflict started. Those conditions were included in the Proclamation of 1763, the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, and the Quebec Act in June 1774.

APRIL 7, 1779 HALDIMAND PLEDGE

“Some of the Mohawks of the Villages of Canojaharie, Tikondarago, and Aughugo, whose settlements than had been on account of their steady attachment to the King’s service and the interests of Government ruined by the rebels; having informed me that my predecessor, Sir. Guy Carleton, was pleased to promise, as soon as present troubles were at an end, the same should be restored at the expense of the Government, to the state they were in before these wars broke out, and said promise appearing to me just, I do hereby ratify the same and assure them the said promise, so far as in me lies, shall be faithfully executed, as soon as that happy time comes.”

In May, Brant returned to Fort Niagara where, with his new salary and plunder from his raids, he acquired a farm on the Niagara River, six miles (10 km) from the fort. To work the farm and to serve the household, he used slaves captured during his raids. Brant also bought a slave, a seven-year-old African-Americangirl named Sophia Burthen Pooley. She served him and his family for many years before he sold her to an Englishman for $100.[17] He built a small chapel for the Indians who started living nearby. There he also married for a third time.

Brant’s honors and gifts caused jealousy among rival chiefs, in particular the Seneca war chief Sayenqueraghta. A British general said that Brant “would be much happier and would have more weight with the Indians, which he in some measure forfeits by their knowing that he receives pay.” In late 1779, after receiving a colonel’s commission for Brant from Lord Germain, Haldimand decided to hold it without informing Brant.

In early July 1779, the British learned of plans for a major American expedition into Iroquois Seneca country. To disrupt the Americans’ plans, John Butler sent Brant and his Volunteers on a quest for provisions and to gather intelligence in the upper Delaware River valley near Minisink, New York. After stopping at Onaquaga, Brant attacked and defeated American militia at the Battle of Minisink on July 22, 1779. Brant’s raid failed to disrupt the Continental Army‘s plans, however.

In the Sullivan Expedition, the Continental Army sent a large force deep into Iroquois territory to attack the warriors and, as importantly, destroy their villages, crops and food stores. Brant and the Iroquois were defeated on August 29, 1779 at the Battle of Newtown, the only major conflict of the expedition. Sullivan’s Continentals swept away all Iroquois resistance in New York, burned their villages, and forced the Iroquois to fall back to Fort Niagara. Brant wintered at Fort Niagara in 1779-80.

Wounded and service in Detroit area, 1780-1783

Brant resumed small-scale attacks on the Mohawk Valley. In February 1780, he and his party set out and in April attacked Harpersfield. In mid-July, 1780 Brant attacked the Oneida village of Kanonwalohale, as the nation was an ally of the American colonists. Brant’s raiders destroyed the Oneida houses, horses, and crops. Some of the Oneida surrendered, but most took refuge at Fort Stanwix.

Traveling east, they attacked towns on both sides of the Mohawk River: Canajoharie and Fort Plank. He burned his former hometown of Canajoharie because it had been re-occupied by American settlers. On their return up the valley, they divided into smaller parties, attacking SchoharieCherry Valley, and German Flatts. Joining with Butler’s Rangers and the King’s Royal Regiment of New York, Brant’s forces were part of a third major raid on the Mohawk Valley, where they destroyed settlers’ homes and crops. Brant was wounded in the heel at the Battle of Klock’s Field.

1781 British are foiled in an attempt to kidnap General Schuyler. American victory over British at Yorktown, VA. In April 1781 Brant was sent west to Fort Detroit to help defend against Virginian George Rogers Clark‘s expedition into the Ohio Country. In August 1781, Brant soundly defeated a detachment of Clark’s force, ending the American threat to Detroit. Battle of  Johnstown, last battle of the America Revolution. Joseph Brant was wounded in the leg and spent the winter 1781-1782 at the fort. During 1781 and 1782, Brant tried to keep the disaffected western Iroquois nations loyal to the Crown before and after the British surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781.
1782

In June 1782 Brant and his Indians went to Fort Oswego, where they helped rebuild the fort. In July 1782, he and 460 Iroquois raided forts Herkimer and Dayton, but they did not cause much serious damage. Sometime during the raid, he received a letter from Governor Haldimand, announcing peace negotiations, recalling the war party and ordering a cessation of hostilities.[1] Brant denounced the British “no offensive war” policy as a betrayal of the Iroquois and urged the Indians to continue the war, but they were unable to do so without British supplies.

Other events in the New World and Europe as well as changes in the British government had brought reconsideration of British national interest on the American continent. The new governments recognized their priority to get Britain out of its four interconnected wars, and time might be short. Through a long and involved process between March and the end of November 1782, the preliminary peace treaty between Great Britain and America would be made; it would become public knowledge following its approval by the Congress of the Confederation

1783 The Peace of Paris is signed and the Revolutionary War ends with American independence. Eighty thousand Tories, the Mohawks, and Others begin exodus from the United States.

The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements; for details of these, and the negotiations which produced all four treaties, see Peace of Paris (1783).[1][2] Its territorial provisions were “exceedingly generous” to the United States in terms of enlarged boundaries.[3] 

March 27, 1784 Onkwehon:we  petition to the King:

Had [no] right Whatever to grant away to the States of America, their Rights or Properties without a manifest breach of all justice and equity, and they would not submit to it as they were a free People subject to no Power upon Earth.  (See: Allan Maclean to Sir Frederick Haldimand, May 18, 1783, P.A.C., Haldimand Papers, A-685; Ibid. Sir Frederick Haldimand to Sir John Johnson, May 22, 1783; Ibid. A-686, Haldimand to Six Nations, March 24, 1784; See also Graymont, The Iroquois in the American Revolution, p. 260.)

"The History and Culture of Iroquois Diplomacy" Edited by Francis Jennings, William N. Fento

“The History and Culture of Iroquois Diplomacy” Edited by Francis Jennings, William N. Fento


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